Binary serialisation library for D

Package Information

Version0.6.6 (2016-Jun-08)
LicenseBSD 3-clause
AuthorsAtila Neves
Registered byAtila Neves


To use this package, put the following dependency into your project's dependencies section:




Build Status

My DConf 2014 talk mentioning Cerealed.

Binary serialisation library for D. Minimal to no boilerplate necessary. The tests in the tests directory depend on unit-threaded to run.

Example usage:

auto cerealiser = Cerealiser(); //UK spelling
cerealiser ~= 5; //int
cerealiser ~= cast(ubyte)42;
assert(cerealiser.bytes == [ 0, 0, 0, 5, 42]);

auto deceralizer = Decerealizer([ 0, 0, 0, 5, 42]); //US spelling works too
assert(decerealizer.value!int == 5);
assert(decerealizer.value!ubyte == 42);

It can also handle strings, associative arrays, arrays, chars, etc. What about structs? No boilerplate necessary, compile-time reflection does it for you. The example below shows off a few features. First and foremost, members are serialised automatically, but can be opted out via the @NoCereal attribute. Also importantly, members to be serialised in a certain number of bits (important for binary protocols) are signalled with the @Bits attribute with a compile-time integer specifying the number of bits to use.

struct MyStruct {
    ubyte mybyte1;
    @NoCereal uint nocereal1; //won't be serialised
    @Bits!4 ubyte nibble;
    @Bits!1 ubyte bit;
    @Bits!3 ubyte bits3;
    ubyte mybyte2;

auto cereal = Cerealiser();
cereal ~= MyStruct(3, 123, 14, 1, 42);
assert(cereal.bytes == [ 3, 0xea /*1110 1 010*/, 42]);

What if custom serialisation is needed and the default, even with opt-outs, won't work? If an aggregate type defines a member function void accept(C)(ref C cereal) it will be used instead. To get the usual automatic serialisation from within the custom accept, the grainAllMembers member function of Cereal can be called, as shown in the example below. This function takes a ref argument so rvalues need not apply.

The function to use on Cereal to marshall or unmarshall a particular value is grain. This is essentially what Cerealiser.~= and Decerealiser.value are calling behind the scenes.

struct CustomStruct {
    ubyte mybyte;
    ushort myshort;
    void accept(C)(auto ref C cereal) {
         //do NOT call cereal.grain(this), that would cause an infinite loop
         ubyte otherbyte = 4; //make it an lvalue

auto cerealiser = Cerealiser();
cerealiser ~= CustomStruct(1, 2);
assert(cerealiser.bytes == [ 1, 0, 2, 4]);

//because of the custom serialisation, passing in just [1, 0, 2] would throw
auto decerealiser = Decerealiser([1, 0, 2, 4]);
assert(decerealiser.value!CustomStruct == CustomStruct(1, 2));

The other option when custom serialisation is needed that avoids boilerplate is to define a void postBlit(C)(ref C cereal) function instead of accept. The marshalling or unmarshalling is done as it would in the absence of customisation, and postBlit is called to fix things up. It is a compile-time error to define both accept and postBlit. Example below.

struct CustomStruct {
    ubyte mybyte;
    ushort myshort;
    @NoCereal ubyte otherByte;
    void postBlit(C)(auto ref C cereal) {
         //no need to handle mybyte and myshort, already done
         if(mybyte == 1) {

    auto cereal = Cerealiser();
    cereal ~= CustomStruct(1, 2);
    assert(cereal.bytes == [ 1, 0, 2, 4]);

    auto cereal = Cerealiser();
    cereal ~= CustomStruct(3, 2);
    assert(cereal.bytes == [ 1, 0, 2]);

For more examples of how to serialise structs, check the tests directory or real-world usage in my MQTT broker also written in D.

Arrays are by default serialised with a ushort denoting array length followed by the array contents. It happens often enough that networking protocols have explicit length parameters for the whole packet and that array lengths are implicitly determined from this. For this use case, the @RestOfPacket attribute tells cerealed to not add the length parameter. As the name implies, it will "eat" all bytes until there aren't any left.

private struct StringsStruct {
    ubyte mybyte;
    @RestOfPacket string[] strings;

auto enc = Cerealiser();
auto strs = StringsStruct(5, ["foo", "foobar", "ohwell"]);
enc ~= strs;
//no length encoding for the array, but strings still get a length each
const bytes = [ 5, 0, 3, 'f', 'o', 'o', 0, 6, 'f', 'o', 'o', 'b', 'a', 'r',
                0, 6, 'o', 'h', 'w', 'e', 'l', 'l'];
assert(enc.bytes == bytes);

auto dec = Decerealiser(bytes);
assert(dec.value!StringsStruct ==  strs);

Derived classes can be serialised via a reference to the base class, but the child class must be registered first:

class BaseClass  { int a; this(int a) { this.a = a; }}
class ChildClass { int b; this(int b) { this.b = b; }}
auto enc = Cerealiser();
BaseClass obj = ChildClass(3, 7);
enc ~= obj;
assert(enc.bytes == [0, 0, 0, 3, 0, 0, 0, 7]);

There is now support for InputRange and OutputRange objects. Examples can be found in the tests directory

Advanced Usage

Frequently in networking programming, the packets themselves encode the length of elements to follow. This happens often enough that Cerealed has two UDAs to automate this kind of serialisation: @ArrayLength and @LengthInBytes. The former specifies how to get the length of an array (usually a variable) The latter specifies how many bytes the array takes. Examples:

struct Packet {
    ushort length;
    @ArrayLength("length") ushort[] array;
auto pkt = decerealise!Packet([
    0, 3, //length
    0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3]); //array of 3 ushorts
assert(pkt.length == 3);
assert(pkt.array == [1, 2, 3]);

struct Packet {
    static struct Header {
        ubyte ub;
        ubyte totalLength;
    enum headerSize = unalignedSizeof!Header; //2 bytes

    Header header;
    @LengthInBytes("totalLength - headerSize") ushort[] array;
auto pkt = decerealise!Packet([
    7, //ub1
    6, //totalLength in bytes
    0, 1, 0, 2]); //array of 2 ushorts
assert(pkt.ub1 == 7);
assert(pkt.totalLength == 6);
assert(pkt.array == [1, 2]);

Available versions

0.6.6 0.6.5 0.6.4 0.6.3 0.6.2 0.6.1 0.6.0 0.5.4 0.5.3 0.5.2 0.5.1 0.5.0 0.4.1 0.4.0 0.3.0 0.2.0 0.1.7 0.1.6 0.1.5 0.1.0 ~master ~pointers