concurrency 1.0.5

concurrency library

To use this package, run the following command in your project's root directory:

Manual usage
Put the following dependency into your project's dependences section:

Structured Concurrency

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Provides various primitives useful for structured concurrency and async tasks.


A Sender is a lazy Task (in the general sense of the word). It needs to be connected to a Receiver and then started before it will (eventually) call one of the three receiver methods exactly once: setValue, setDone, setError.

It can be used to model many asynchronous operations: Futures, Fiber, Coroutines, Threads, etc. It enforces structured concurrency because a Sender cannot start without it being awaited on.

setValue is the only one allowed to throw exceptions, and if it does, setError is called with the Exception. setDone is called when the operation has been cancelled.

See for the C++ proposal for introducing Senders/Receivers.

Currently we have the following Senders:

  • ValueSender. Just produces a plain value.
  • ThreadSender. Calls the setValue function in the context of a new thread.
  • Nursery. A place to await multiple Senders.
  • ForkSender. Forks the program and executes the supplied function.
  • ThrowingSender. Always throws.
  • DoneSender. Always cancels.
  • VoidSender. Always calls setValue with no arguments.

Writing your own Sender

Most of the asynchronous tasks you will do involve writing your own Sender.

Here is the implementation of the ValueSender.

/// A Sender that sends a single value of type T
struct ValueSender(T) {
  alias Value = T;
  static struct Op(Receiver) {
    Receiver receiver;
    T t;
    void start() {
  T t;
  Op!Receiver connect(Receiver)(Receiver r) {
    return Op!(Receiver)(r, t);

A ValueSender!int is nothing more than a int wrapped in a struct with a connect method. It can be constructed and passed around, but it won't produce a value until it is connected and started. The Op object (operational-state) returned by connect represents the state of a connected Sender/Receiver pair, which in case of the ValueSender includes the value to be send. After connecting the operational-state still need its start method called, before it actually produces a value.

A Receiver needs to implement the setValue, setError and setDone. A Sender is required to call exactly one of the three functions. Both setError and setdone are required to be nothrow. If setValue is not nothrow then the Sender must call setError if setValue throws.

Most Senders should call receiver.getStopToken to retrieve a stoptoken by which they can be notified (or polled) whether they are cancelled. See the section of stoptokens how this works.


Senders enjoy the following operations.

  • sync_wait. It takes a Sender and blocks the current execution context until the Sender is completed. It then returns or throws anything the Sender has send, if any. (note: attributes are inferred when possible, so that e.g. if the Sender doesn't call setError, sync_wait itself is nothrow).

  • then. Chains a callable to be invoked when the Sender is completed with a value.

  • via. Start one Sender in the setValue of another. Useful for when you want to change the execution context. ValueSender!int(4).via(ThreadSender()) produces an int in the context of a new thread.

  • withStopToken. Like then but injects a StopToken as well.

  • withStopSource. When applied after a Sender you can stop the Sender manually with the stopsource. It will still stop when the downstream receiver's StopToken is triggered.

  • race. Runs 2 Senders and completes with the value produced by the first to complete, after first cancelling and awaiting the others. When both Senders complete with an error, the first error is propagated. When both Senders complete with cancellation, race completes with cancellation as well.

  • ignoreError. Redirects the setException to setDone, so as not to trigger the downstream error path.

  • finally_. Takes a Sender and a callable or value and completes with that regardless of whether the Sender completed with setValue or setException.

  • whenAll. Produces a tuple of values after all Senders produced their values. If one or more Senders complete with an error, whenAll will complete with the first error, after stopping and awaiting the remaining Senders. Likewise, if one Sender completes with cancellation, whenAll completes with cancellation as well, after stopping and awaiting the remaining Senders.

  • retry. It retries the underlying Sender until success or cancellation. The retry logic is customizable. Included is a Times, that will retry n times and then propagate the latest failure.


A place where Senders can be awaited in. Senders placed in the Nursery are started only when the Nursery is started.

In many ways it is like the when_all, except as an object. That allows it to be passed around and for work to be registered into it dynamically.


StopTokens are thread-safe objects used to request cancellation. They can be polled or subscribed to.

A receiver may have a getStopToken that returns one. If not a default getStopToken is available that returns a NeverStopToken.

A Sender should retrieve a StopToken via getStopToken on the connecting Receiver and try to abort as quick as possible when it gets triggered.

The simplest way is to poll the stoptoken regularly. There is a isStopRequested method that will return true if the Sender should abort. After cleanup the Sender must call setDone.

NOTE: In some cases when a stop is requested, the Sender is already busy setting a value or an exception. Receivers should not assume that because the stoptoken is triggered only setDone will be called, it is perfectly valid to call one of the other two as well.

In some case you might need a push notification that a stop has been requested. There is a free function called onStop that takes a StopToken and a delegate. The delegate will be called - in another execution context - to signify that a stop is requested. The onStop function returns a StopCallback that needs its dispose to be called before or after the Sender has called one of the completion functions. Not calling dispose will lead to memory leaks in long-running Senders (e.g. the Nursery).

See for a thorough explanation for why we need stop tokens in particular and cancellation in general.


This package uses dsemver to calculate the next semantic version.

run dub run dsemver@1.1.0 -- -p $(pwd) -c to calcuate the next version.

  • skoppe
mir-core, concepts
1.0.5 2021-Apr-29
1.0.4 2021-Apr-23
1.0.3 2021-Apr-23
1.0.2 2021-Apr-08
1.0.1 2021-Mar-08
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