concurrency 3.4.0

concurrency library

To use this package, run the following command in your project's root directory:

Manual usage
Put the following dependency into your project's dependences section:

Structured Concurrency

<img src=""/> <img src=""/> <img src=""/> Provides various primitives useful for structured concurrency and async tasks.


A Sender is a lazy Task (in the general sense of the word). It needs to be connected to a Receiver and then started before it will (eventually) call one of the three receiver methods exactly once: setValue, setDone, setError.

It can be used to model many asynchronous operations: Futures, Fiber, Coroutines, Threads, etc. It enforces structured concurrency because a Sender cannot start without it being awaited on.

setValue is the only one allowed to throw exceptions, and if it does, setError is called with the Exception. setDone is called when the operation has been cancelled.

See for the C++ proposal for introducing Senders/Receivers.

Currently we have the following Senders:

  • ValueSender. Just produces a plain value. just is a convenient construction function for it.
  • ThreadSender. Calls the setValue function in the context of a new thread.
  • Nursery. A place to await multiple Senders.
  • ForkSender. Forks the program and executes the supplied function.
  • ThrowingSender. Always throws.
  • DoneSender. Always cancels.
  • VoidSender. Always calls setValue with no arguments.
  • ErrorSender. Always calls setError with supplied exception.
  • PromiseSender. Creates a promise-like object that can be fulfilled, canceled or errored manually. Useful for when the Sender/Receiver connection isn't statically known or very dynamic.

Writing your own Sender

Most of the asynchronous tasks you will do involve writing your own Sender.

Here is the implementation of the ValueSender.

/// A Sender that sends a single value of type T
struct ValueSender(T) {
  alias Value = T;
  T value;
  static struct Op(Receiver) {
    Receiver receiver;
    T value;
    void start() {
  Op!Receiver connect(Receiver)(Receiver receiver) {
    // ensure NVRO
    auto op = Op!(Receiver)(receiver, value);
    return op;

A ValueSender!int is nothing more than a int wrapped in a struct with a connect method. It can be constructed and passed around, but it won't produce a value until it is connected and started. The Op object (operational-state) returned by connect represents the state of a connected Sender/Receiver pair, which in case of the ValueSender includes the value to be send. After connecting the operational-state still need its start method called, before it actually produces a value.

A Receiver needs to implement the setValue, setError and setDone. A Sender is required to call exactly one of the three functions once. Both setError and setdone are required to be nothrow. If setValue is not nothrow then the Sender must call setError if setValue throws.

Most Senders should call receiver.getStopToken to retrieve a stoptoken by which they can be notified (or polled) whether they are cancelled. See the section of stoptokens how this works.


Senders enjoy the following operations.

  • syncWait. It takes a Sender and blocks the current execution context until the Sender is completed. It then returns or throws anything the Sender has send, if any. (note: attributes are inferred when possible, so that e.g. if the Sender doesn't call setError, syncWait itself is nothrow).

  • then. Chains a callable to be invoked when the Sender is completed with a value.

  • via. Start one Sender in the setValue of another. Useful for when you want to change the execution context. ValueSender!int(4).via(ThreadSender()) produces an int in the context of a new thread.

  • withStopToken. Like then but injects a StopToken as well.

  • withStopSource. When applied after a Sender you can stop the Sender manually with the stopsource. It will still stop when the downstream receiver's StopToken is triggered.

  • race. Runs multiple Senders and completes with the value produced by the first to complete, after first cancelling and awaiting the others. When all Senders complete with an error, the first error is propagated. When all Senders complete with cancellation, race completes with cancellation as well. Unlike raceAll it allows Senders to error or complete with cancellation as long as one is still running.

  • raceAll. Runs multiple Senders and completes with the value or error produced by the first to complete, after first cancelling and awaiting the others. Unlike race the only way it can complete with a value is if all Senders are still running at that one of them completes. So not only does it forward the first value, also the first error.

  • ignoreError. Redirects the setException to setDone, so as not to trigger the downstream error path.

  • finally_. Takes a Sender and a callable or value and completes with that regardless of whether the Sender completed with setValue or setException.

  • whenAll. Produces a tuple of values after all Senders produced their values. If one or more Senders complete with an error, whenAll will complete with the first error, after stopping and awaiting the remaining Senders. Likewise, if one Sender completes with cancellation, whenAll completes with cancellation as well, after stopping and awaiting the remaining Senders.

  • retry. It retries the underlying Sender until success or cancellation. The retry logic is customizable. Included is a Times, that will retry n times and then propagate the latest failure.

  • completeWithCancellation. Wraps the Sender and redirects the setValue termination to complete with cancellation. The Sender is not allowed to produce a Value.

  • toShared. Wraps a Sender in a SharedSender that forwards the same termination call to each connected Receiver.

  • forwardOn. Run the completion of a Sender on a specific Scheduler.

  • toSingleton. Only allows one instantiation of the underlying Sender, regardless of how many Receivers are connected. In contrast with toShared this starts the underlying Sender each time the receiver count goes from 0 to 1, whereas toShared keeps the last termination cached.

  • stopOn. Allows to explicitely set which StopToken to use. Normally StopToken's are chained so that triggering stop will propagate through the whole task chain. stopOn allows you to have Senders that only listen to a specific StopToken.

  • withChild. Creates an ordering of stop triggers between the parent and the child. When the resulting Sender's StopToken is triggered, the parent's is only triggered after the child has completed. This creates certainty of child operations having ran cleanup code before the parent is triggered.


A Stream has a .collect function that accepts a shared callable and returns a Sender. Once the Sender is connected and started the Stream will call the callable zero or more times before one of the three terminal functions of the Receiver is called.

An exception throw in the callable will cancel the stream and complete the Sender with that exception.

Streams can be cancelled by triggering the StopToken supplied via the Receiver.

The callable supplied to the Stream has to annotated with shared because the execution context where the callable is called from is undefined.

Currently there are the following Streams:

  • infiniteStream. Continously emits the same value.
  • iotaStream. Emits the values that span the given starting and stopping values.
  • arrayStream. Emits every value from the array.
  • intervalStream. Emits every interval.
  • doneStream. Upon start immediately emits cancellation.
  • errorStream. Upon start immediately emits an error.
  • sharedStream. Is used for broadcasting values to zero or more receivers. Receivers can be added and removed at any time.

With the following operations:

  • take. Emits at most the first n values.
  • transform. Applies a tranformation function to each value.
  • filter. Filters out all values where predicate is false.
  • scan. Applies an accumulator function with seed to each value.
  • sample. Forwards the latest value of the base Stream every time the trigger Stream emits a value. If the base stream hasn't produced a (new) value the trigger is ignored.
  • via. Starts the Stream on the context of another Sender.
  • throttleFirst. Limits a Stream by starting a cooldown period after each value during which no newer values are emitted.
  • throttleLast. Like throttleFirst but only emits the latest value after the cooldown.
  • debounce. Limits a Stream by only emitting the last value after the Stream has not emitted for a duration.
  • slide. Slides a window over the stream and emits each full window as an array.
  • toList. Converts the Stream into a Sender that completes with an array that contains all the items emitted. Be careful to use this on finite streams only.

Most of the time you will need to write your own Stream however. The following helpers can speed that up:

  • loopStream. Takes a struct with a loop function and calls that with an emit and stopToken while ensuring the struct is alive during that.
  • fromStreamOp. Constructs a full Stream given only a templated OperationalState. Allows passing in custom values into the OperationalState's constructor. Since Streams build on Senders they require a bit of boilerplate to setup, this helper eliminates that.


Schedulers create Senders that run on specific execution contexts. A Sender can query a Receiver with .getScheduler() to get a Scheduler and from there can schedule additional tasks to be ran immediately or after a certain Duration.

syncWait automatically inserts a LocalThreadScheduler with a timingwheels implementation to fulfull the Scheduler contract. This means that by default any Sender can schedule timers that run on the thread that awaits the whole chain.

For testing purposes there is a ManualTimeScheduler which can be used to advance the timingwheels manually.


stdTaskPool creates a RAII thread pool where Senders can be scheduled on using the .on scheduling operator. Both the sender scheduled will run in the thread pool as well any additional scheduled Senders using getScheduler. It uses the std.parallelism's TaskPool implementation underneath.


A place where Senders can be awaited in. Senders placed in the Nursery are started only when the Nursery is started.

In many ways it is like the when_all, except as an object. That allows it to be passed around and for work to be registered into it dynamically.


StopTokens are thread-safe objects used to request cancellation. They can be polled or subscribed to.

A receiver may have a getStopToken that returns one. If not a default getStopToken is available that returns a NeverStopToken.

A Sender should retrieve a StopToken via getStopToken on the connecting Receiver and try to abort as quick as possible when it gets triggered.

The simplest way is to poll the stoptoken regularly. There is a isStopRequested method that will return true if the Sender should abort. After cleanup the Sender must call setDone.

NOTE: In some cases when a stop is requested, the Sender is already busy setting a value or an exception. Receivers should not assume that because the stoptoken is triggered only setDone will be called, it is perfectly valid to call one of the other two as well.

You might need a push notification that a stop has been requested. There is a free function called onStop that takes a StopToken and a delegate. The delegate will be called - in an undefined execution context - to signify that a stop is requested. The onStop function returns a StopCallback that needs its dispose to be called before the Sender has terminated. Not calling dispose will lead to memory leaks in long-running Senders (e.g. the Nursery).

See for a thorough explanation for why we need stop tokens in particular and cancellation in general.


This package uses dsemver to calculate the next semantic version.

run dub run dsemver@1.1.0 -- -p $(pwd) -c to calcuate the next version.

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