Auto-generated D bindings for Vulkan
To use this package, run the following command in your project's root directory:
This package provides sub packages which can be used individually:
erupted:devices - Simple Vulkan example
erupted:layers - Simple Vulkan example
Release note v2.x.x
This release has breaking changes regarding the treatment of Platform Extensions. All dependency requirements have been removed, including derelict-util to load
vkGetInstanceProcAddr. This functionality has been replaced through the new module
Additionally, DispatchDevice and the python generator have been extracted. The former into its own module
erupted.dispatch_device, and the later into its own github project V-Erupt.
The easiest way to start is calling
loadGlobalLevelFunctions() from module
erupted.vulkan_lib_loader.This function automatically loads the Vulkan dynamic link library
Vulkan-1.dll (Windows) or
libvulkan.so.1 (Posix), retrieves
vkGetInstanceProcAddr from the lib and loads global functions from Vulkan implementation.
Steps to follow:
- import vulkan lib loader via
loadGlobalLevelFunctions()(and check the result!) to load the following functions:
if the call was successful (returns true), skip to 5.
- on failure, get a pointer to the
vkGetInstanceProcAddrthrough platform-specific means (e.g. loading the Vulkan shared library manually, or
glfwGetInstanceProcAddressif using GLFW3 >= v3.2 with DerelictGLFW3 >= v3.1.0)
getInstanceProcAddris the address of the loaded
vkGetInstanceProcAddrfunction. This loads the same functions as described in step 2.
- create a
VkInstanceusing the above functions
loadInstanceLevelFunctions(VkInstance)to load additional
VkInstancerelated functions. Get information about available physical devices (e.g. GPU(s), APU(s), etc.) and physical device related resources (e.g. Queue Families, Queues per Family, etc.)
- three options are available to acquire a logical device and device resource related functions:
loadDeviceLevelFunctions(VkInstance), the acquired functions call indirectly through the
VkInstanceand will be internally dispatched to various devices by the implementation
loadDeviceLevelFunctions(VkDevice), the acquired functions call directly the
VkDeviceand related resources. This path is faster, skips one indirection, but is useful only in a single physical device environment. Calling the same function with another
VkDevicewill overwrite all the previously fetched function
- create a DispatchDevice with Vulkan functions as members kind of namespaced, see DispatchDevice
Examples for checking instance and device layers as well as device creation can be found in the
examples directory, and run with
dub run erupted:examplename. Examples found in 'examples/platform' directory are just explanatory and cannot be build or run (see Platform Extensions)
C vs D API
VK_NULL_HANDLEis defined as
0and can be used as
pointertype argument in C world. D's
nullcan be used only as a pointer argument. This is an issue when compiling for 32 bit, as dispatchable handles (
VkQueue) are pointer types while non dispatchable handles (e.g.
uint64_ttypes. Hence ErupteD
VK_NULL_HANDLEcan only be used as dispatchable null handle (on 32 Bit!). For non dispatchable handles another ErupteD symbol exist
VK_NULL_ND_HANDLE. On 64 bit all handles are pointer types and
VK_NULL_HANDLEcan be used at any place. However
VK_NULL_ND_HANDLEis still defined for sake of completeness and ease of use. The issue might be solved when
multiple alias thisis released, hence I recommend building 64 Bit apps and ignore
Best practice summary:
- if exclusively building a 32 Bit app or switching forth and back between 32 and 64 Bit use
VK_NULL_ND_HANDLEfor non dispatchable handles
- if exclusively building a 64 Bit app
VK_NULL_HANDLEcan be used as any of the two vk handle types
- if exclusively building a 32 Bit app or switching forth and back between 32 and 64 Bit use
- named enums in D are not global but they are forwarded into global scope. Hence e.g.
VK_SUCCESScan both be used
- all structures have their
sTypefield set to the appropriate value upon initialization; explicit initialization is not needed
- struct members which are d keywords ( so far
version) are renamed to their title case counterparts (
Version) and additional alias have been added (
DispatchDevice holds a
VkDevice, a pointer to
const VkAllocationCallbacks and the Vulkan functions loaded from that device, collision protected. The allocator is optional for Vulkan as well as for the DispatchDevice and the same rules apply: if not specified, the default allocator will be used. An allocator is locked to the device throughout its lifetime. Before usage, the
DispatchDevice must be initialize, either immediately:
auto dd = DispatchDevice( device, allocator ); // allocator default = null
DispatchDevice dd; dd.loadDeviceLevelFunctions( device, allocator ); // allocator can be omitted
VkAllocationCallbacks are private and must NOT change. The member vkFunctions can only be used with this device and, when required, this allocator. It can be accessed with the properties
auto dd = DispatchDevice( device ); dd.vkDestroyDevice( dd.vkDevice, dd.pAllocator );
DispatchDevice has also convenience functions. With these the device and allocator arguments can be omitted. They forward to the corresponding Vulkan function, the device and allocator argument are supplied by the private
VkAllocationCallbacks members. The crux is that function pointers can't be overloaded with regular functions hence the
vk prefix is ditched for the convenience variants:
auto dd = DispatchDevice( device ); dd.DestroyDevice: // instead of: dd.vkDestroyDevice( dd.vkDevice, dd.pAllocator );
Same mechanism works with functions which require a VkCommandBuffer as first arg, but before using them the public member 'commandBuffer' must be set with the target VkCommandBuffer:
dd.commandBuffer = some_command_buffer; dd.BeginCommandBuffer( &beginInfo ); dd.CmdBindPipeline( VK_PIPELINE_BIND_POINT_GRAPHICS, some_pipeline );
Needless to say that
some_command_buffer must have been acquired from the private device member, or some other handle to that device.
The Mechanism does NOT work with queues, there are about four queue related functions which most probably won't be used in bulk.
Platform extensions, found in module
erupted.platform_extensions, exist in form of the configurable
mixin template Platform_Extensions( extensions... ). With this template you can mixin extension related code into your project, but you need to take care of the dependencies yourself. Please note the dropped VK_ prefix, more to that bellow:
// platform extension example with xlib-d // xlib-d must be specified as dependency in your projects dub file module spocks_logic; public import X11.Xlib; // publicly import required API import erupted.platform.mixin_extensions; // import the template mixin mixin Platform_Extensions!USE_PLATFORM_XLIB_KHR; // mixin all xlib related extensions
The template publicly imports
erupted.functions. This is necessary as some functions from the latter module are overwritten/extended to also load related Vulkan extension functions.
DispatchDevice from module
erupted.dispatch_device is also extended/overwritten with the corresponding extension functions. If you would include both, your module and
erupted.functions in another module,
DispatchDevice would collide.
erupted.platform_extensions defines enums corresponding to extension names, and alias sequences corresponding to C Vulkan platform protection
#define definitions. In both cases the
VK_ prefix has been dropped. Since vulkan 1.1 all feature names (core 1.0, 1.1 and extensions) are #define(d) to 1. This is reflected in ErupteD with
enum feature_name = 1; and these enums would collide with those defined in module
Platform_Extensions. Hence the dropped prefixes. Alias sequences of feature names have their prefix dropped as well, this is not necessary but might change in future. The template accepts combinations of any each enum and alias sequence in any order.
You'll find example modules in
examples/platform for wayland, xcb and xlib. Copy the whole module or its content into your project and possibly edit its name and imported platform module. On windows
core.sys.windows.windows from druntime is publicly imported, no need for any other dependency. As of writing windows is also the only platform with multiple extensions in place of
USE_PLATFORM_WIN32_KHR alias sequence/macro, which are all instantiated. If you figure out which dependencies are available for other platform extensions, please notify me through an issue or send me a PR.
Reasoning for the redesign:
Platform extensions work with types, and possibly functions, defined in platform specific C headers like
X11/Xlib.h. Most important use case of these extensions is arguably platform surface mechanics. The third party library
glfw3 is a solid way to deal with Vulkan platform surfaces in a platform agnostic way. However, by design,
glfw3 does not support surface unrelated platform extensions (e.g.
The only official platform API (as in being part of the dlang standard lib/runtime) is the windows API, but luckily ports of other platform APIs do exist in the dub registry. However, ErupteD should not rely on unofficial dependencies, as they may brake or become deprecated. Furthermore, specifying several different platform dependencies in
dub.json does pollute the local dub cache with foreign platform projects, even if they are not usable on the current platform (e.g.
xlib-d on windows platform).
Beta Extensins were introduced in vulkan v1.2.135 with the first three of them being
KHR_ray_tracing. They are marked with the special token
VK_ENABLE_BETA_EXTENSIONS and are curiously treated as platform extensions (see vk.xml). This means that, if you want to use them, you need to follow the same steps as detailed in Platform Extensions, mixing them in individually or all of them at once, e.g.:
mixin Platform_Extensions!ENABLE_BETA_EXTENSIONS; // mixin all beta extensions
The generator for Erupted-V2 was split off into its own github project V-Erupt.
Additionally, you'll need the Vulkan-Docs repo (Requires Python 3 and lxml.etree).
Finally, to erupt the dlang bindings, call
path/to/Vulkan-docs as first argument and an output folder for the D files as second argument. You will still need to manually the directory tree corresponding to the the module paths.
- Registered by Peter Particle
- 2.0.68+v1.2.148 released 10 days ago
- BSD 2-clause
- Copyright 2015-2016 The Khronos Group Inc.; Copyright 2016 Alex Parrill; Copyright 2018 Peter Particle
- Sub packages:
- erupted:devices, erupted:layers
2.0.68+v1.2.148 2020-Jul-25 2.0.66+v1.2.146 2020-Jul-11 2.0.65+v1.2.145 2020-Jul-11 2.0.62+v1.2.142 2020-Jun-18 2.0.61+v1.2.141 2020-Jun-18
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