iopipe 0.2.2

A modular io library in D.

To use this package, run the following command in your project's root directory:

Manual usage
Put the following dependency into your project's dependences section:

iopipe Build Status

D language library for modular io

API documentation:

iopipe is an input/output library for the D programming language that strives to be as close as possible to the unix shell "pipe" io specification.

Unix pipes model

In a unix shell, one "pipes" a command to another command using the pipe character |. For example

# find -name 'hello*' | grep world

Such a command pipes the output of the find command to the input of the grep command

In D, a very elegant set of constructs, called ranges, can use this same type of mechanism to "wrap" one range with other ranges, similarly to building a pipeline of i/o with the unix shell.

foreach(a;!(a => a * 3).filter!(a => a % 100 != 0))
   // a will consist of multiples of 3 from someArray, in reverse order,
   // but that are not also multiples of 100

The nice thing about this is that the pipeline is compiler-generated code, evaluated lazily. This means, no new arrays are created, and the elements are generated on-demand when asked for. In addition, since the pipeline is created at compile-time, it can all be optimized into the most efficient code possible.

iopipe attempts the same thing with buffered stream data.

For example:

import iopipe.textpipe;
import iopipe.bufpipe;
import std.typecons;

// open a zipfile, decompress it, detect the text encoding inside, and process
// lines that contain "foo"
void main(string[] args)
    File(args[1])               // open a file
         .refCounted            // File can't be copied
         .bufd                  // buffer it
         .unzip                 // decompress it
         .runEncoded!((input) { // detect the text encoding and process it.
           import std.algorithm: filter, canFind;
           import std.stdio: writeln;
           foreach(line; input.byLineRange!false.filter!(a => canFind(a, "foo")))
               writeln("this line contains foo: ", line);

Basic Iopipe

A basic iopipe has 3 primitive functions which can be called. These are the functions by which you can manipulate and process data. Typically, one is given an iopipe which may need adjustments or reinterpretation, and it is simply a matter of wrapping that iopipe in converters or processors that effect the desired type of data, format of data, or rate of data.

A string of wrapped iopipes is called a chain. Most iopipes will use the member name chain to denote the source iopipe from which data is retrieved.

SomeRange window

This property gives a view into the data of the iopipe. The range should be a random access, non-infinite range. For purposes of the iopipe library, narrow character arrays are considered random access ranges of that code unit type.

Wrapping iopipes may return a subset of the wrapped window, or return the window mapped into a different type.

NOTE: there are some assumptions in functions of the iopipe library that all windows are arrays. Although most things should work with non-array windows, it has not been thoroughly tested. Please file any issues if you have a use case for a non-array window!

void release(size_t elements)

Release the given number of elements from the beginning of the window. The iopipe is required to release the specified data, such that the data no longer appears in the window (how it accomplishes this may still hold the data in the buffer somehow). To release more elements than are in the window results in undefined behavior.

Previous calls or accesses to window should be discarded. Release is allowed to change the data returned by window.

size_t extend(size_t elements)

Extend the current window's end by the given number of elements. If the specified number of elements is 0, then the iopipe should extend the optimal number of elements if it can. This should attempt to extend at least one element.

Returns the number of elements extended. If no data can be extended, the return value is 0, and it is considered the end of the stream in most cases. In some cases, you may receive a 0 when an upstream valve is holding back some of the data (this is defined by whomever implemented the valve). You are allowed to attempt to extend an iopipe even when a previous call to extend returned 0.

More Concepts


Most iopipes start with a source. A source is a type that provides a read member, accepting a buffer that is filled in with data from a data stream, and returns how many elements were read. A BufferManager is used to manage the allocation of the data, and turn the buffered data into a proper iopipe. The iopipe library provides two types of Buffers that can be managed -- an AllocatedBuffer type that uses an Allocator from std.experimental to manage the allocations for the buffer, and a RingBuffer type which is a very fast version of a Circular Buffer. Note that the RingBuffer type is posix-only, but Windows support will be added later.

As of this release, iopipe provides 2 basic sources, a NullDev which provides uninitialized data, and a ZeroDev which provides zeroed data.


A Sink can take a buffer of data and write it to an external location (such as a file or array). A sink is simply a type that defines a write member, accepting the buffer to be written, and returning how many elements were written.

The outputPipe function is the only iopipe wrapper that accepts a Sink. It actually is simply another iopipe, and can be wrapped further for more processing if necessary. It writes to the sink as data is extended BEFORE providing the data further down the chain.


The IODev class has been deprecated, and is now an alias to Martin Nowak's library. The dependency on is optional, and if not included, the IODev and related functions are only present if your project depends on

However, even when depending on, instead of using openDev or IODev, it is preferred to use to open streams and then build iopipes on top of those.

Note a few things:

  1. Because of the reliance on and a quirk in the comipler that was fixed recently, this arrangement only builds on DMD 2.080.1 and later. If you need support for earlier compilers, use 0.0.4 of iopipe or earlier. If you use 0.1.0 or later of iopipe and an earlier compiler, it will not link if you use IODev.
  2. A feature of IODev that is not in is the ability to use a FILE * or file descriptor and not close it when the class is destroyed.
  3. more sensibly uses non-copyable structs instead of classes for lifetime management. Because iopipe generally copies things around even though it's only going to use one copy eventually, you may need to wrap the IOs in ref counting or a class (both are supported by


A Valve is a control point along the iopipe chain. The concept is that you can use a valve to access some nested wrapped piece of the iopipe to change parameters or effect certain behavior. The output system relies completely on valves to work properly. The closest such item is accessed by using the valve property of the iopipe (which must return by reference). If no more valves exist, then this will not compile.

All wrapping iopipes that do not define a new valve must provide access to the next upstream valve if it exists. This is essential to writing a proper iopipe wrapper. There is a convenience mixin to allow this to happen automatically.


A concept not formalized in any type, but nonetheless important for iopipe, when it is difficult or impossible to translate data in-place, it becomes necessary to copy the data from its source format to a new buffer. This is done by transforming the iopipe into a Source, and then using a new BufferManager to buffer the data.

Note that a wrapping type can be both an iopipe AND a source, giving flexibility whenever possible.

For examples of how this is done, see and iopipe.bufpipe.iosrc.


When constructing an iopipe, each wrapping function is passed a copy of the previous chain. This means that all iopipes must be copyable at least before processing begins. It is expected to treat each result of a wrapper uniquely, and not make copies of half constructed data.

In some cases, it's necessary to have a single instance of an iopipe's internals. This is to either adhere to some low-level library requirements or to properly release resources. In this case, std.typecons.RefCounted is used to fill this task.


Take a look at the example programs in the examples subdirectory.

  • byline - A program that can read any text file of UTF8, UTF16, or UTF32 encoding, and output the line lengths to the standard output stream (this uses std.stdio.writeln to do this for now).
  • convert - Takes the standard input of any text encoding, and a parameter of the type of encoding to output, and converts the input to the output, adding a BOM if necessary.
  • zip - Compress the standard input to the standard output.
  • unzip - Decompress the standard input to the standard output.
  • search - Print lines that match given search terms, with some context lines surrounding the line.


iopipe is built with dub. To build the examples, use the dub package command line:

dub build :examplename

  • Steven Schveighoffer
  • Dmitry Olshansky
Sub packages:
iopipe:byline, iopipe:convert, iopipe:unzip, iopipe:zip, iopipe:search
0.2.5 2023-Oct-20
0.2.4 2023-Mar-08
0.2.3 2020-Aug-08
0.2.2 2020-Aug-08
0.2.1 2020-Jun-28
Show all 19 versions
Download Stats:
  • 2 downloads today

  • 10 downloads this week

  • 34 downloads this month

  • 128940 downloads total

Short URL: