requests 0.1.7

http requests


To use this package, run the following command in your project's root directory:

Manual usage
Put the following dependency into your project's dependences section:

dlang-requests

Build Status

HTTP requests library with goals:

  • small memory footprint
  • performance
  • simple, high level API

API docs: Wiki

###Make a simple Request###

Making http/https/ftp request with dlang-requests is very simple. First of all install and import requests module:

import requests;

Now, if all we need is content of some webpage, then we can call getContent to receive it:

auto content = getContent("http://httpbin.org/");

getContent fetch complete document to buffer and return this buffer to the caller. content can be converted to string, or can be used as range. For example, if you need to count lines in content, you can directly apply splitter and count:

writeln(content.splitter('\n').count);

or count non-empty lines:

writeln(content.splitter('\n').filter!"a!=``".count);

Actually buffer is ForwardRange with length and random access, so you can apply many algorithms directly to it. Or you can extract data in form of ubyte[], using method data:

ubyte[] data = content.data;

###Request with Parameters ###

Requests propose simple way to make request with parameters. For example you have to simulate a search query for person: name - person name, age - person age, and so on... You can pass all parameters to get using queryParams() helper:

auto content = getContent("http://httpbin.org/get", queryParams("name", "any name", "age", 42));

If you check httpbin response, you will see that server recognized all parameters:

    {
      "args": {
        "age": "42",
        "name": "any name"
      },
      "headers": {
        "Accept-Encoding": "gzip, deflate",
        "Host": "httpbin.org",
        "User-Agent": "dlang-requests"
      },
      "origin": "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx",
      "url": "http://httpbin.org/get?name=any name&age=42"
    }

Or, you can pass dictionary:

auto content = getContent("http://httpbin.org/get", ["name": "any name", "age": "42"]);

Which give you the same response.

If getContent fails

getContent() (and any other API call) can throw exceptions:

  • ConnectError when we can't connect to document origin for some reason (can't resolve name, connection refused,...)
  • TimeoutException when any single operation connect, receive, send timed out.
  • ErrnoException when we geceive ErrnoException from any underlying call.
  • RequestException in case in some other cases.

###Posting data to server### The easy way to post with Requests is postContent. There are several way to post data to server:

  1. Post to web-form using "form-urlencode" - for posting short data.
  2. Post to web-form using multipart - for large data and file uploads.
  3. Post data to server without forms.
Form-urlencode

Call postContent in the same way as getContent with parameters:

    import std.stdio;
    import requests;
    
    pragma(lib, "ssl");
    pragma(lib, "crypto");
    
    void main() {
        auto content = postContent("http://httpbin.org/post", queryParams("name", "any name", "age", 42));
        writeln(content);
    }

Output:

    {
      "args": {},
      "data": "",
      "files": {},
      "form": {
        "age": "42",
        "name": "any name"
      },
      "headers": {
        "Accept-Encoding": "gzip, deflate",
        "Content-Length": "22",
        "Content-Type": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded",
        "Host": "httpbin.org",
        "User-Agent": "dlang-requests"
      },
      "json": null,
      "origin": "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx",
      "url": "http://httpbin.org/post"
    }
Multipart form

Posting multipart forms required MultipartForm structure to be prepared:

    import std.stdio;
    import std.conv;
    import std.string;
    import requests;
    
    pragma(lib, "ssl");
    pragma(lib, "crypto");
    
    void main() {
        MultipartForm form;
        form.add(formData("name", "any name"));
        form.add(formData("age", to!string(42)));
        form.add(formData("raw data", "some bytes".dup.representation));
        auto content = postContent("http://httpbin.org/post", form);
        writeln("Output:");
        writeln(content);
    }
    Output:
    {
      "args": {},
      "data": "",
      "files": {},
      "form": {
        "age": "42",
        "name": "any name",
        "raw data": "some bytes"
      },
      "headers": {
        "Accept-Encoding": "gzip, deflate",
        "Content-Length": "332",
        "Content-Type": "multipart/form-data; boundary=e3beab0d-d240-4ec1-91bb-d47b08af5999",
        "Host": "httpbin.org",
        "User-Agent": "dlang-requests"
      },
      "json": null,
      "origin": "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx",
      "url": "http://httpbin.org/post"
    }

Here is example on posting file:

    import std.stdio;
    import std.conv;
    import std.string;
    import requests;
    
    void main() {
        MultipartForm form;
        form.add(formData("file", File("test.txt", "rb"), ["filename":"test.txt", "Content-Type": "text/plain"]));
        form.add(formData("age", "42"));
        auto content = postContent("http://httpbin.org/post", form);
    
        writeln("Output:");
        writeln(content);
    }
    Output:
    {
      "args": {},
      "data": "",
      "files": {
        "file": "this is test file\n"
      },
      "form": {
        "age": "42"
      },
      "headers": {
        "Accept-Encoding": "gzip, deflate",
        "Content-Length": "282",
        "Content-Type": "multipart/form-data; boundary=3fd7317f-7082-4d63-82e2-16cfeaa416b4",
        "Host": "httpbin.org",
        "User-Agent": "dlang-requests"
      },
      "json": null,
      "origin": "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx",
      "url": "http://httpbin.org/post"
    }
Posting raw data without forms

postContent() can post from InputRanges. For example to post file content:

    import std.stdio;
    import requests;
    
    pragma(lib, "ssl");
    pragma(lib, "crypto");
    
    void main() {
        auto f = File("test.txt", "rb");
        auto content = postContent("http://httpbin.org/post", f.byChunk(5), "application/binary");
        writeln("Output:");
        writeln(content);
    }
   
    Output:
    {
      "args": {},
      "data": "this is test file\n",
      "files": {},
      "form": {},
      "headers": {
        "Accept-Encoding": "gzip, deflate",
        "Content-Length": "18",
        "Content-Type": "application/binary",
        "Host": "httpbin.org",
        "User-Agent": "dlang-requests"
      },
      "json": null,
      "origin": "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx",
      "url": "http://httpbin.org/post"
    }

Or if your keep your data in memory, then just use something like this:

auto content = postContent("http://httpbin.org/post", "ABCDEFGH", "application/binary");

That is all details about simple API with default request parameters. Next section will describe a lower level interface through Request structure.

Request() structure

When you need access to response code, or configure request details, you have to use Request and Response structures:

Request rq = Request();
Response rs = rq.get("https://httpbin.org/");
assert(rs.code==200);

By default we use KeepAlive requests, so you can reuse connection:

import std.stdio;
import requests;

void main()
{
    auto rq = Request();
    rq.verbosity = 2;
    auto rs = rq.get("http://httpbin.org/image/jpeg");
    writeln(rs.responseBody.length);
    rs = rq.get("http://httpbin.org/image/png");
    writeln(rs.responseBody.length);
}

Second rq.get() will reuse previous connection to server. Request() will authomatically reopen connection when host, protocol or port changes(so it is safe to send different requests through single instance of Request). It also recover when server prematurely close keepalive connection. You can turn keepAlive off when needed:

rq.keepAlive = false;

For anything other than default, you can configure Request structure for keep-alive, redirects, headers, o r for different io-buffer and maximum sizes of response headers and body.

For example to authorize with Basic authorization use next code:

    rq = Request();
    rq.authenticator = new BasicAuthentication("user", "passwd");
    rs = rq.get("http://httpbin.org/basic-auth/user/passwd");

Here is short descrition of some Request options, you can set:

nametypemeaningdefault
keepAliveboolrequest keepalive connectionfalse
maxRedirectsuintmaximum redirect depth10
maxHeadersLengthsize_tmax.acceptable response headers length32KB
maxContentLengthsize_tmax.acceptable content length5MB
timeoutDurationtimeout on connect or data transfer30.seconds
bufferSizesize_tsocket io buffer size16KB
verbosityuintverbosity level (0, 1 or 2)0
proxystringurl of the http proxynull
headersstring[string]additional headersnull
useStreamingboolreceive data as lazy InputRangefalse
cookieCookie[]cookies you will send to servernull
authenticatorAuthauthenticatiornull

Request() properties you can read:

nametypemeaning
cookieCookie[]cookie, server sent to us
contentLengthlongcurrent document content Length or -1 if unknown
contentReceivedlongcontent recived

contentLength and contentReceived can be used to monitor streaming response:

import std.stdio;
import requests;

void main()
{
    auto rq = Request();
    rq.useStreaming = true;
    rq.verbosity = 2;
    auto rs = rq.get("http://httpbin.org/image/jpeg");
    auto stream = rs.receiveAsRange();
    while(!stream.empty) {
        writefln("Received %d bytes, total received %d from document legth %d", stream.front.length, rq.contentReceived, rq.contentLength);
        stream.popFront;
    }
}

Produce console output:

> GET /image/jpeg HTTP/1.1
> Connection: Keep-Alive
> User-Agent: dlang-requests
> Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
> Host: httpbin.org
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< server: nginx
< date: Thu, 09 Jun 2016 16:25:57 GMT
< content-type: image/jpeg
< content-length: 35588
< connection: keep-alive
< access-control-allow-origin: *
< access-control-allow-credentials: true
< 1232 bytes of body received
< 1448 bytes of body received
Received 2680 bytes, total received 2680 from document legth 35588
Received 2896 bytes, total received 5576 from document legth 35588
Received 2896 bytes, total received 8472 from document legth 35588
Received 2896 bytes, total received 11368 from document legth 35588
Received 1448 bytes, total received 12816 from document legth 35588
Received 1448 bytes, total received 14264 from document legth 35588
Received 1448 bytes, total received 15712 from document legth 35588
Received 2896 bytes, total received 18608 from document legth 35588
Received 2896 bytes, total received 21504 from document legth 35588
Received 2896 bytes, total received 24400 from document legth 35588
Received 1448 bytes, total received 25848 from document legth 35588
Received 2896 bytes, total received 28744 from document legth 35588
Received 2896 bytes, total received 31640 from document legth 35588
Received 2896 bytes, total received 34536 from document legth 35588
Received 1052 bytes, total received 35588 from document legth 35588

You can use requests in parallel tasks (but you can't share single Request structure between threads):

import std.stdio;
import std.parallelism;
import std.algorithm;
import std.string;
import core.atomic;

immutable auto urls = [
    "http://httpbin.org/stream/10",
    "https://httpbin.org/stream/20",
    "http://httpbin.org/stream/30",
    "https://httpbin.org/stream/40",
    "http://httpbin.org/stream/50",
    "https://httpbin.org/stream/60",
    "http://httpbin.org/stream/70",
];

void main() {
    defaultPoolThreads(5);

    shared short lines;

    foreach(url; parallel(urls)) {
        atomicOp!"+="(lines, getContent(url).splitter("\n").count);
    }
    assert(lines == 287);
}

Response() structure

This structure present details about received response.

Most frequently needed parts of response are:

  • code - http or ftp response code as received from server.
  • responseBody - contain complete document body when no streaming in use. You can't use it when in streaming mode.
  • responseHeaders - response headers in form of string[string] (not available for ftp requests)
  • receiveAsRange - if you set useStreaming in the Request, then receiveAsRange will provide elements(type ubyte[]) of InputRange while receiving data from the server.

Low level details

At the lowest level Request() use several templated overloads of single call exec(). Using this method you can call other than GET or POST HTTP methods (Attention: you have to use HTTPRequest instead of Request, as this calls are specific to HTTP):

#!/usr/bin/env rdmd -I./source librequests.a -L-lssl -L-lcrypto y.d
import std.stdio;
import requests;
import std.algorithm;

void main()
{
    auto file = File("y.d", "rb");
    auto rq = HTTPRequest();
    rq.verbosity = 2;
    auto rs = rq.exec!"PUT"("http://httpbin.org/put?exampleTitle=PUT%20content", file.byChunk(1024));
    writeln(rs.responseBody);
}

> PUT /put?exampleTitle=PUT%20content HTTP/1.1
> Transfer-Encoding: chunked
> Connection: Keep-Alive
> User-Agent: dlang-requests
> Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
> Host: httpbin.org
> Content-Type: text/html
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< server: nginx
< date: Sat, 11 Jun 2016 22:28:13 GMT
< content-type: application/json
< content-length: 780
< connection: keep-alive
< access-control-allow-origin: *
< access-control-allow-credentials: true
< 780 bytes of body received
{
  "args": {
    "exampleTitle": "PUT content"
  },
  "data": "#!/usr/bin/env rdmd -I./source librequests.a -L-lssl -L-lcrypto y.d\nimport std.stdio;\nimport requests;\nimport std.algorithm;\n\nvoid main()\n{\n    auto file = File(\"y.d\", \"rb\");\n    auto rq = HTTPRequest();\n    rq.verbosity = 2;\n    auto rs = rq.exec!\"PUT\"(\"http://httpbin.org/put?exampleTitle=PUT%20content\", file.byChunk(1024));\n    writeln(rs.responseBody);\n}\n\n",
  "files": {},
  "form": {},
  "headers": {
    "Accept-Encoding": "gzip, deflate",
    "Content-Length": "361",
    "Content-Type": "text/html",
    "Host": "httpbin.org",
    "User-Agent": "dlang-requests"
  },
  "json": null,
  "origin": "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx",
  "url": "http://httpbin.org/put?exampleTitle=PUT content"
}
Authors:
  • ikod
Dependencies:
none
Versions:
2.0.9 2022-Oct-22
2.0.8 2022-May-15
2.0.7 2022-May-09
2.0.6 2022-Apr-27
2.0.5 2022-Apr-23
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